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Challenging Behavior in Young Children
Challenging Behavior in Elementary and Middle School
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Contents of Challenging Behavior in Elementary and Middle School

Introduction

CHAPTER 1:  What Is Challenging Behavior?

     Is challenging behavior ever appropriate?
     What happens to students with more serious behavior problems?
     Does challenging behavior always develop the same way?
     What do the theorists say about aggression and antisocial behavior?
     Does culture play a role in aggressive behavior?
     What do you think?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 2:  Biological Risk Factors

     What causes challenging behavior?
Child Risk Factors 
     Genes
     Gender
     Temperament
     Complications of pregnancy and birth
     Problems with brain function
     Emotional and behavior disorders
Environmental Risk Factors
     Family factors and parenting style
     Peer influences
     School
     Poverty and the conditions surroundings it
     Exposure to violence
     Violent media
     Turbulent times
     Understanding risk
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading and resources

CHAPTER 3:  Protective Factors

     The first wave: What qualities help a child bounce back?
     The second wave: How do protective factors work?
     The third wave: Integrating biology and intervention
     What do you think?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 4:  Behavior and the Brain

Early Experience and the Brain
     How does the brain develop?
     How does experience affect brain development?
     Are there any critical periods in the social and emotional realm?
     How does early experience affect the stress system?
     What role do genes play?
The Adolescent Brain
     How does puberty affect the brain?
     What about cognitive development?
     What happens when emotion and cognition are out of sync?
Aggression and the Adult Brain
     Which parts of the brain are involved in aggressive behavior? 
     What does all this mean?
     What do you think?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 5:  Relationship, Relationship, Relationship

     The caring connection
Understanding Yourself
     “Who are you?” said the caterpillar
     What influences the way you relate to a child with challenging behavior?
     What is self-reflection?
     How do you reflect?
     When do you reflect?
     Are there any techniques to help you reflect?
Understanding the Child
     What is the role of attachment?
     How does attachment affect behavior?
     How does temperament influence attachment? 
     What happens to attachment as children grow older?
Establishing a Relationship with the Child
     How does a close relationship with a teacher protect a child?
     How can you develop a positive relationship with a child with challenging behavior?
     Back to the beginning
Establishing a Relationship with the Family
     What keeps teachers and families apart?
     Getting to know you
     What about parent-teacher night?
     Should teachers visit families at home?
     The next step
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 6:  Opening the Culture Door

What Is Culture?
     What does culture have to do with identity?
     Are cultures really so different?
     The melting pot and the salad bowl
When Home Culture Meets School Culture
     The culture of school
     How does culture influence behavior?
     How can you make your teaching more culturally responsive?
Some Cultural Characteristics
     Does each culture have its own special characteristics?
     Why all this matters
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 7: Preventing Challenging Behavior: The Social Context

     How does prevention work?
     We’re all the same, yet we’re all different
Creating the Social Context
     What kind of social context fosters prosocial behavior and discourages aggressive behavior?
     What is the teacher’s role in the social context?
     Why should we include children with challenging behaviors?
     How can you create a caring, cooperative, and inclusive community?
Teaching Social and Emotional Skills
     How do children learn social and emotional skills?
     How do you teach social and emotional skills?
     What skills do children need to learn?
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading and resources

CHAPTER 8: Preventing Challenging Behavior: Physical Space, Classroom Management, and Teaching Strategies

The Physical Space
     Where will they sit?
     Where does the teacher belong?
     Other spaces
     Deck the walls
     Taking responsibility in the classroom
Classroom Management
     Providing a daily schedule
     Using procedures
     Managing the group
Teaching Strategies
     Differentiated instruction
     Sharing responsibility and providing choice
     A compendium of teaching strategies
     Homework or not?
When Circumstances Change
     Providing reassurance
     Talking about feelings
     Routines and activities
     Maintaining the social context
     Connecting with colleagues and parents
     Taking care of yourself
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 9: Guidance and Other Discipline Strategies

     How do strategies differ?
     What makes a strategy work?
     What is developmental discipline?
     How does Teacher Effectiveness Training work?
     How useful is positive reinforcement?
     What about natural and logical consequences?
     Time-out, punishment, and time away
     How does culture influence guidance?
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 10:  The WEVAS Strategy

     The competent state and calibration
     The anxious state
     The agitated state
     The aggressive state
     The assaultive state
     The open state
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading and resources

CHAPTER 11:  Functional Assessment and Positive Behavior Support

Performing a Functional Assessment
     When is it appropriate to use functional assessment and positive behavior support?
     How do you figure out the function of a behavior?
     What functions can behavior serve?
     What about appropriate behavior?
     Working as a team
     How do you get the information you need for a functional assessment?
     How do you develop a hypothesis?
Creating a Positive Behavior Support Plan
     How do you develop a positive behavior support plan?
     How does the plan look?
     How do you evaluate the plan?
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading and resources

CHAPTER 12: The Inclusive Classroom

About Inclusion
     Why is inclusion important?
     How does IDEA work?
     What’s happening on the front lines?
     How is a child who needs special education identified?
     Does IDEA include all disabilities?
     Can an IEP address behavior?
     Who is responsible for implementing an IEP?
Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior in Children with Disabilities
     Does a student’s disability play a role in challenging behavior?
     Who can help?
     How can an inclusive social context prevent challenging behavior?
     How can you organize the physical space to prevent challenging behavior? 
     How can classroom routines and teaching strategies prevent challenging behavior?
     How can you respond effectively to challenging behavior?
     Additions to the toolbox
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading and resources

CHAPTER 13:  Working with Families and Other Experts

Preparing to Meet the Family
     How do families react to news of challenging behavior?
     How do you feel?
     How can colleagues help?
Meeting with the Family
     How do you arrange a meeting?
     What should happen in a meeting with the family?
     How do you close a meeting?
     What if you and the family disagree?
Working with Other Experts
     What about getting additional expert advice?
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading

CHAPTER 14:  Bullying

What Is Bullying?
     How common is bullying?
     Who are the students who bully others?
     Who are the targets of bullying?
     Who are the bystanders?
How Can Teachers Reduce and Prevent Bullying?
     The whole-school approach
     Working in your own classroom
     What helps students cope with bullying?
Responding to Bullying
     What does the law say?
     How do you respond to bullying?
     What if you don’t see the bullying?
     What do you say to students involved in bullying?
     Working with the parents of students involved in bullying
     What do you think?
     What would you do?
     Suggested reading and resources

APPENDIX A:  A-B-C Chart

APPENDIX B:  The Functional Assessment Observation Form

Appendix C: Converting an A-B-C Chart into a Functional Assessment Observation Form

References

Index

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